Chapter 10: Fired heaters

10.1Introduction3
10.1.1Fired Heaters related important references3
10.2Codes and Related Practices3
10.3Applications of Fired Heaters3
10.4Heater Selection and Types of Fired Heaters4
10.4.1Direct Fired Heaters5
10.4.2Indirect Fired Heaters10
10.4.3Heaters classification defined based on draft10
10.4.4Comparison between API and DIN standards13
10.5Design Practices13
10.5.1Heater Components17
10.6Heat Transfer Design Guidelines22
10.6.1Process Design of Heaters22
10.6.2Combustion Basics23
10.7Combustion Side Design Considerations61
10.7.1Fuel61
10.7.1.1Gaseous fuels61
10.7.1.2Liquid Fuels66
10.7.2Combustion Air70
10.7.3Fuel Emmisivity75
10.8Guidelines on Recommended Firebox Geometry76
10.9Burner System Design78
10.9.1Burners79
10.10Air Preheat benefits86
10.11Atomisation86
10.11.1Mechanisms of Liqiuds Atomization86
10.12Importance of Proper Ducting To Multiple Burners in Fired Heater90
10.13Refractory and Heater Tube Materials91
10.13.1Details on Types of Refractory Materials93
10.14Materials of Construction97
10.14.1Mettalurgy of Various Components Of Heaters97
10.15Acid Dewpoint100
10.16Soot Blowers104
10.17Air Preheaters105
10.18Stacks and Ducts106
10.19Dampers106
10.20Heater Instrumentation107
10.21Overall control schemes107
10.22Burner Management System119
10.23Environmetal Aspects Concerning Fired Heaters127
10.24Performance Monitoring of Fired Heaters132
10.25Layout Considerations for Fired Heaters133
10.26Design Parameters of a Large API 560 Heater134
10.27Process Datasheet (PDS) Preparation137
10.28References142