Chapter 10: Fired heaters

10.1 Introduction 3
10.1.1 Fired Heaters related important references 3
10.2 Codes and Related Practices 3
10.3 Applications of Fired Heaters 3
10.4 Heater Selection and Types of Fired Heaters 4
10.4.1 Direct Fired Heaters 5
10.4.2 Indirect Fired Heaters 10
10.4.3 Heaters classification defined based on draft 10
10.4.4 Comparison between API and DIN standards 13
10.5 Design Practices 13
10.5.1 Heater Components 17
10.6 Heat Transfer Design Guidelines 22
10.6.1 Process Design of Heaters 22
10.6.2 Combustion Basics 23
10.7 Combustion Side Design Considerations 61
10.7.1 Fuel 61
10.7.1.1 Gaseous fuels 61
10.7.1.2 Liquid Fuels 66
10.7.2 Combustion Air 70
10.7.3 Fuel Emmisivity 75
10.8 Guidelines on Recommended Firebox Geometry 76
10.9 Burner System Design 78
10.9.1 Burners 79
10.10 Air Preheat benefits 86
10.11 Atomisation 86
10.11.1 Mechanisms of Liqiuds Atomization 86
10.12 Importance of Proper Ducting To Multiple Burners in Fired Heater 90
10.13 Refractory and Heater Tube Materials 91
10.13.1 Details on Types of Refractory Materials 93
10.14 Materials of Construction 97
10.14.1 Mettalurgy of Various Components Of Heaters 97
10.15 Acid Dewpoint 100
10.16 Soot Blowers 104
10.17 Air Preheaters 105
10.18 Stacks and Ducts 106
10.19 Dampers 106
10.20 Heater Instrumentation 107
10.21 Overall control schemes 107
10.22 Burner Management System 119
10.23 Environmetal Aspects Concerning Fired Heaters 127
10.24 Performance Monitoring of Fired Heaters 132
10.25 Layout Considerations for Fired Heaters 133
10.26 Design Parameters of a Large API 560 Heater 134
10.27 Process Datasheet (PDS) Preparation 137
10.28 References 142

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