Chapter 14: Line sizing, hydraulics

14.1.1Hydraulics related important references4
14.2Design Practices4
14.2.1Piping Sizes and Schedule4
14.2.2Hydraulic Design Consideration5
14.2.3Design Margins for Line Sizing6
14.2.4Line Sizing Criteria6 Liquid Line Sizing6 Limit Requirements8
14.3.1Discussion Guidelines11
14.3.2Hydraulic Hammer15
14.3.3Vapour Line Sizing18 Considerations19 Velocity, Vapor19 phase flow – Maximum Velocity20 Return Line to Column20 Suction and Discharge Lines21 Oil Vacuum Unit Furnace Transfer Line22 to a Column22 Overhead Vapor Lines23 Overhead Condenser Rundown Lines23 Valve Discharge Line to Atmosphere24, Carbonate, and Sour Water24 Acid25 Hydroxide25 Lines25 – Liquid Mixtures (Two Phase Flow)26
14.4Specialized Services29
14.5Utilities Line Sizing Guidelines30
14.5.1Water Systems30
14.5.2Boiling Water Lines30
14.5.3Cold Water Lines31
14.5.4Cooling Water31
14.5.5Fuel Oil to Heaters31
14.5.6Fuel Gas to Heaters32
14.5.7Steam Systems35
14.5.8Vacuum Piping41
14.5.9Utility Gas and Air Systems41
14.5.10Tank Overflows44
14.5.11Special Commodities44
14.5.12Slurry Line Sizing45 of Flow Regimes46 Settling Velocity46 Velocity Selection Criteria47
14.5.13Bitumen and Hydrocarbon Slurry Piping48
14.5.14Relief and Vapour Depressurizing Lines48
14.6Hydraulic Circuits48
14.6.1Documentation Requirements48
14.6.2System Sketch48
14.6.3Operating Cases49
14.6.4Piping Segments49
14.6.5Piping Lengths & Fittings50
14.6.6Equipment Allowances51
14.6.7Regulating Control Valve Allowances51
14.7Non-Pumped Hydraulic Circuits53
14.8Two Phase Equations54
14.9Examples of Hydraulic calculations54
14.10Special Tip65
14.11Cooling Tower System66
14.13Glossary of terms75