Chapter 14: Line sizing, hydraulics

14.1Introduction4
14.1.1Hydraulics related important references4
14.2Design Practices4
14.2.1Piping Sizes and Schedule4
14.2.2Hydraulic Design Consideration5
14.2.3Design Margins for Line Sizing6
14.2.4Line Sizing Criteria6
14.2.4.1Hydrocarbon Liquid Line Sizing6
14.2.4.2Battery Limit Requirements8
14.3Calculations11
14.3.1Discussion Guidelines11
14.3.2Hydraulic Hammer15
14.3.3Vapour Line Sizing18
14.3.3.1Noise Considerations19
14.3.3.2Sonic Velocity, Vapor19
14.3.3.3Two phase flow – Maximum Velocity20
14.3.3.4Reboiler Return Line to Column20
14.3.3.5Compressor Suction and Discharge Lines21
14.3.3.6Crude Oil Vacuum Unit Furnace Transfer Line22
14.3.3.7Feed to a Column22
14.3.3.8Column Overhead Vapor Lines23
14.3.3.9Column Overhead Condenser Rundown Lines23
14.3.3.10Relief Valve Discharge Line to Atmosphere24
14.3.3.11Amine, Carbonate, and Sour Water24
14.3.3.12Sulfur24
14.3.3.13Sulfuric Acid25
14.3.3.14Sodium Hydroxide25
14.3.3.15Flare Lines25
14.3.3.16Vapour – Liquid Mixtures (Two Phase Flow)26
14.4Specialized Services29
14.5Utilities Line Sizing Guidelines30
14.5.1Water Systems30
14.5.2Boiling Water Lines30
14.5.3Cold Water Lines31
14.5.4Cooling Water31
14.5.5Fuel Oil to Heaters31
14.5.6Fuel Gas to Heaters32
14.5.7Steam Systems35
14.5.8Vacuum Piping41
14.5.9Utility Gas and Air Systems41
14.5.10Tank Overflows44
14.5.11Special Commodities44
14.5.12Slurry Line Sizing45
14.5.12.1Types of Flow Regimes46
14.5.12.2Limiting Settling Velocity46
14.5.12.3Slurry Velocity Selection Criteria47
14.5.13Bitumen and Hydrocarbon Slurry Piping48
14.5.14Relief and Vapour Depressurizing Lines48
14.6Hydraulic Circuits48
14.6.1Documentation Requirements48
14.6.2System Sketch48
14.6.3Operating Cases49
14.6.4Piping Segments49
14.6.5Piping Lengths & Fittings50
14.6.6Equipment Allowances51
14.6.7Regulating Control Valve Allowances51
14.7Non-Pumped Hydraulic Circuits53
14.8Two Phase Equations54
14.9Examples of Hydraulic calculations54
14.10Special Tip65
14.11Cooling Tower System66
14.12Abbreviations74
14.13Glossary of terms75
14.14References76