Chapter 14: Line sizing, hydraulics

14.1 Introduction 4
14.1.1 Hydraulics related important references 4
14.2 Design Practices 4
14.2.1 Piping Sizes and Schedule 4
14.2.2 Hydraulic Design Consideration 5
14.2.3 Design Margins for Line Sizing 6
14.2.4 Line Sizing Criteria 6
14.2.4.1 Hydrocarbon Liquid Line Sizing 6
14.2.4.2 Battery Limit Requirements 8
14.3 Calculations 11
14.3.1 Discussion Guidelines 11
14.3.2 Hydraulic Hammer 15
14.3.3 Vapour Line Sizing 18
14.3.3.1 Noise Considerations 19
14.3.3.2 Sonic Velocity, Vapor 19
14.3.3.3 Two phase flow – Maximum Velocity 20
14.3.3.4 Reboiler Return Line to Column 20
14.3.3.5 Compressor Suction and Discharge Lines 21
14.3.3.6 Crude Oil Vacuum Unit Furnace Transfer Line 22
14.3.3.7 Feed to a Column 22
14.3.3.8 Column Overhead Vapor Lines 23
14.3.3.9 Column Overhead Condenser Rundown Lines 23
14.3.3.10 Relief Valve Discharge Line to Atmosphere 24
14.3.3.11 Amine, Carbonate, and Sour Water 24
14.3.3.12 Sulfur 24
14.3.3.13 Sulfuric Acid 25
14.3.3.14 Sodium Hydroxide 25
14.3.3.15 Flare Lines 25
14.3.3.16 Vapour – Liquid Mixtures (Two Phase Flow) 26
14.4 Specialized Services 29
14.5 Utilities Line Sizing Guidelines 30
14.5.1 Water Systems 30
14.5.2 Boiling Water Lines 30
14.5.3 Cold Water Lines 31
14.5.4 Cooling Water 31
14.5.5 Fuel Oil to Heaters 31
14.5.6 Fuel Gas to Heaters 32
14.5.7 Steam Systems 35
14.5.8 Vacuum Piping 41
14.5.9 Utility Gas and Air Systems 41
14.5.10 Tank Overflows 44
14.5.11 Special Commodities 44
14.5.12 Slurry Line Sizing 45
14.5.12.1 Types of Flow Regimes 46
14.5.12.2 Limiting Settling Velocity 46
14.5.12.3 Slurry Velocity Selection Criteria 47
14.5.13 Bitumen and Hydrocarbon Slurry Piping 48
14.5.14 Relief and Vapour Depressurizing Lines 48
14.6 Hydraulic Circuits 48
14.6.1 Documentation Requirements 48
14.6.2 System Sketch 48
14.6.3 Operating Cases 49
14.6.4 Piping Segments 49
14.6.5 Piping Lengths & Fittings 50
14.6.6 Equipment Allowances 51
14.6.7 Regulating Control Valve Allowances 51
14.7 Non-Pumped Hydraulic Circuits 53
14.8 Two Phase Equations 54
14.9 Examples of Hydraulic calculations 54
14.10 Special Tip 65
14.11 Cooling Tower System 66
14.12 Abbreviations 74
14.13 Glossary of terms 75
14.14 References 76

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