Chapter 16: Utilities

16.1.1Related important references5
16.2Fuels system6
16.2.1Gaseous Fuels6 Conditioning and Delivery Basis6
16.2.2Liquid Fuel9 Conditioning and Delivery Basis12 and Pumping Temperature14 Flow Diagram14 Sizing Criteria14
16.2.3Solid Fuel20 Sizing Criteria20
16.3Compressed air system24
16.3.1Introduction24 of System Capacity24
16.4Nitrogen system41
16.4.2Determination of System Capacity41
16.4.3Peak Demand of Nitrogen41
16.4.4Fluid Data42
16.4.5Operational Requirements42
16.4.7Fluid Conditioning and Delivery Basis42
16.4.9Cost comparison48
16.4.10Control and Instrumentation49
16.4.11Equipment Sizing Criteria49
16.5Thermal fluid systems53
16.5.1Steam53 Requirements56 Conditioning and Delivery Basis57
16.5.2Steam System57 System Design Overview57 Distribution57
16.5.3The Boiler House61 Sizing Criteria61
16.5.4Components of Boiler91 Deaeration102 systems103 Water tank115, Fans and Stack123 Fuel System125 Down and Blow down Flash Drums130 Installations143 Flash Drums144 blowers150 and valves152 and Instrumentation153 Separators and Accumulators161 Tracing162 Stations165 and Surface Condensers165 Equipment167
16.5.5Boiler water treatment169
16.5.6Steam Traps, applications and hook up details173 Traps174 Steam Traps194 Trap Application Hook-Up Diagrams197
16.5.7Special Steam System Design Considerations207
16.5.8For Projects Handling Steam / Condensate inside India212
16.5.9Specification of Boilers216
16.5.10Preparation of Boiler Specifications, Evaluating Boiler Vendor Bids221
16.5.11Condensate Collection System Design Comments225
16.6Thermal Fluids and Thermic Fluid Systems268
16.6.2Fluid Data268
16.6.3Control and Instrumentation276
16.6.4Equipment Sizing Criteria276
16.7Cooling and Refrigeration system292
16.7.2Cooling Water292 Towers294 of Cooling Towers299 of Cooling Tower314 Tower Controls321 Tower Layout considerations322 Tower Specification322
16.8Cooling Tower Side Stream Filter323
16.9.2Determination of System Capacity337
16.9.3Fluid Data344
16.9.4Operational Requirements344
16.9.5Absorption refrigeration347
16.9.6Aqueous Ammonia System348
16.9.7Utility Flow Diagram350
16.9.8Equipment Sizing Criteria351
16.10Chilled Water Systems & Applications354
16.11Water Treatment367
16.11.2Water Sources367
16.11.3Impurities in Water367
16.11.4Chemical reactions involved in water treatment376
16.11.5Water Treatment Schemes379 and Ground Water Treatment379 Water Desalination/Reverse Osmosis Treatment380 of the three major desalination technologies392 Processes for Desalination395
16.12Water Treatment Methods and Process Equipments396
16.12.1Pretreatment & Pretreatment Process Equipment Details396
16.12.2Membrane System404 Separation & Ion Exchange404 Exchange/Demineralization425 and Counter-Current Regeneration432 of Regenerant Effluent433 or Conditioning Treatment439 Handling & Disposal441 Treatment442
16.13Waste Water Treatment (Effluent Treatment)446
16.13.3Water Treatment Schemes450
16.13.4Waste Water Treatment Methods and Process Equipments453
16.13.5Enquiry Specification of ETP468