Chapter 16: Utilities

16.1 Introduction 5
16.1.1 Related important references 5
16.2 Fuels system 6
16.2.1 Gaseous Fuels 6
16.2.1.1 Introduction 6
16.2.1.2 Fluid Conditioning and Delivery Basis 6
16.2.2 Liquid Fuel 9
16.2.2.1 Introduction 9
16.2.2.2 Fluid Conditioning and Delivery Basis 12
16.2.2.3 Storage and Pumping Temperature 14
16.2.2.4 Utility Flow Diagram 14
16.2.2.5 Equipment Sizing Criteria 14
16.2.3 Solid Fuel 20
16.2.3.1 Introduction 20
16.2.3.2 Equipment Sizing Criteria 20
16.3 Compressed air system 24
16.3.1 Introduction 24
16.3.1.1 Determination of System Capacity 24
16.4 Nitrogen system 41
16.4.1 Introduction 41
16.4.2 Determination of System Capacity 41
16.4.3 Peak Demand of Nitrogen 41
16.4.4 Fluid Data 42
16.4.5 Operational Requirements 42
16.4.6 Safety 42
16.4.7 Fluid Conditioning and Delivery Basis 42
16.4.8 Sources 43
16.4.9 Cost comparison 48
16.4.10 Control and Instrumentation 49
16.4.11 Equipment Sizing Criteria 49
16.5 Thermal fluid systems 53
16.5.1 Steam 53
16.5.1.1 Introduction 53
16.5.1.2 Operational Requirements 56
16.5.1.3 Fluid Conditioning and Delivery Basis 57
16.5.2 Steam System 57
16.5.2.1 Steam System Design Overview 57
16.5.2.2 Steam Distribution 57
16.5.3 The Boiler House 61
16.5.3.1 Equipment Sizing Criteria 61
16.5.4 Components of Boiler 91
16.5.4.1 Deaerator 91
16.5.4.2 Mechanical Deaeration 102
16.5.4.3 Control systems 103
16.5.4.4 Superheaters 109
16.5.4.5 Desuperheater 110
16.5.4.6 Feed Water tank 115
16.5.4.8 Economisers, Fans and Stack 123
16.5.4.9 Boiler Fuel System 125
16.5.4.10 Blow Down and Blow down Flash Drums 130
16.5.4.11 Multi-Boiler Installations 143
16.5.4.12 Condensate Flash Drums 144
16.5.4.13 Soot blowers 150
16.5.4.14 Piping and valves 152
16.5.4.15 Control and Instrumentation 153
16.5.4.16 Steam Separators and Accumulators 161
16.5.4.17 Steam Tracing 162
16.5.4.18 Letdown Stations 165
16.5.4.19 Turbo-Generators and Surface Condensers 165
16.5.4.20 Auxiliary Equipment 167
16.5.5 Boiler water treatment 169
16.5.6 Steam Traps, applications and hook up details 173
16.5.6.1 Steam Traps 174
16.5.6.2 Selecting Steam Traps 194
16.5.6.3 Steam Trap Application Hook-Up Diagrams 197
16.5.7 Special Steam System Design Considerations 207
16.5.8 For Projects Handling Steam / Condensate inside India 212
16.5.9 Specification of Boilers 216
16.5.10 Preparation of Boiler Specifications, Evaluating Boiler Vendor Bids 221
16.5.11 Condensate Collection System Design Comments 225
16.6 Thermal Fluids and Thermic Fluid Systems 268
16.6.1 Introduction 268
16.6.2 Fluid Data 268
16.6.3 Control and Instrumentation 276
16.6.4 Equipment Sizing Criteria 276
16.7 Cooling and Refrigeration system 292
16.7.1 Air 292
16.7.2 Cooling Water 292
16.7.2.1 Cooling Towers 294
16.7.2.2 Classification of Cooling Towers 299
16.7.2.3 Components of Cooling Tower 314
16.7.2.4 Cooling Tower Controls 321
16.7.2.5 Cooling Tower Layout considerations 322
16.7.2.6 Cooling Tower Specification 322
16.8 Cooling Tower Side Stream Filter 323
16.9 Refrigerants 335
16.9.1 Introduction 335
16.9.2 Determination of System Capacity 337
16.9.3 Fluid Data 344
16.9.4 Operational Requirements 344
16.9.5 Absorption refrigeration 347
16.9.6 Aqueous Ammonia System 348
16.9.7 Utility Flow Diagram 350
16.9.8 Equipment Sizing Criteria 351
16.10 Chilled Water Systems & Applications 354
16.11 Water Treatment 367
16.11.1 Introduction 367
16.11.2 Water Sources 367
16.11.3 Impurities in Water 367
16.11.4 Chemical reactions involved in water treatment 376
16.11.5 Water Treatment Schemes 379
16.11.5.1 Surface and Ground Water Treatment 379
16.11.5.2 Sea Water Desalination/Reverse Osmosis Treatment 380
16.11.5.3 Desalination 381
16.11.5.4 Comparison of the three major desalination technologies 392
16.11.5.5 Other Processes for Desalination 395
16.12 Water Treatment Methods and Process Equipments 396
16.12.1 Pretreatment & Pretreatment Process Equipment Details 396
16.12.2 Membrane System 404
16.12.2.2 Membrane Separation & Ion Exchange 404
16.12.2.3 Ion Exchange/Demineralization 425
16.12.2.4 Co-Current and Counter-Current Regeneration 432
16.12.2.5 Neutralization of Regenerant Effluent 433
16.12.2.6 Polishing or Conditioning Treatment 439
16.12.2.7 Waste/Sludge Handling & Disposal 441
16.12.2.8 Condensate Treatment 442
16.13 Waste Water Treatment (Effluent Treatment) 446
16.13.1 Introduction 446
16.13.3 Water Treatment Schemes 450
16.13.4 Waste Water Treatment Methods and Process Equipments 453
16.13.5 Enquiry Specification of ETP 468
16.14 References 469

Share this post