Chapter 16: Utilities

16.1Introduction5
16.1.1Related important references5
16.2Fuels system6
16.2.1Gaseous Fuels6
16.2.1.1Introduction6
16.2.1.2Fluid Conditioning and Delivery Basis6
16.2.2Liquid Fuel9
16.2.2.1Introduction9
16.2.2.2Fluid Conditioning and Delivery Basis12
16.2.2.3Storage and Pumping Temperature14
16.2.2.4Utility Flow Diagram14
16.2.2.5Equipment Sizing Criteria14
16.2.3Solid Fuel20
16.2.3.1Introduction20
16.2.3.2Equipment Sizing Criteria20
16.3Compressed air system24
16.3.1Introduction24
16.3.1.1Determination of System Capacity24
16.4Nitrogen system41
16.4.1Introduction41
16.4.2Determination of System Capacity41
16.4.3Peak Demand of Nitrogen41
16.4.4Fluid Data42
16.4.5Operational Requirements42
16.4.6Safety42
16.4.7Fluid Conditioning and Delivery Basis42
16.4.8Sources43
16.4.9Cost comparison48
16.4.10Control and Instrumentation49
16.4.11Equipment Sizing Criteria49
16.5Thermal fluid systems53
16.5.1Steam53
16.5.1.1Introduction53
16.5.1.2Operational Requirements56
16.5.1.3Fluid Conditioning and Delivery Basis57
16.5.2Steam System57
16.5.2.1Steam System Design Overview57
16.5.2.2Steam Distribution57
16.5.3The Boiler House61
16.5.3.1Equipment Sizing Criteria61
16.5.4Components of Boiler91
16.5.4.1Deaerator91
16.5.4.2Mechanical Deaeration102
16.5.4.3Control systems103
16.5.4.4Superheaters109
16.5.4.5Desuperheater110
16.5.4.6Feed Water tank115
16.5.4.8Economisers, Fans and Stack123
16.5.4.9Boiler Fuel System125
16.5.4.10Blow Down and Blow down Flash Drums130
16.5.4.11Multi-Boiler Installations143
16.5.4.12Condensate Flash Drums144
16.5.4.13Soot blowers150
16.5.4.14Piping and valves152
16.5.4.15Control and Instrumentation153
16.5.4.16Steam Separators and Accumulators161
16.5.4.17Steam Tracing162
16.5.4.18Letdown Stations165
16.5.4.19Turbo-Generators and Surface Condensers165
16.5.4.20Auxiliary Equipment167
16.5.5Boiler water treatment169
16.5.6Steam Traps, applications and hook up details173
16.5.6.1Steam Traps174
16.5.6.2Selecting Steam Traps194
16.5.6.3Steam Trap Application Hook-Up Diagrams197
16.5.7Special Steam System Design Considerations207
16.5.8For Projects Handling Steam / Condensate inside India212
16.5.9Specification of Boilers216
16.5.10Preparation of Boiler Specifications, Evaluating Boiler Vendor Bids221
16.5.11Condensate Collection System Design Comments225
16.6Thermal Fluids and Thermic Fluid Systems268
16.6.1Introduction268
16.6.2Fluid Data268
16.6.3Control and Instrumentation276
16.6.4Equipment Sizing Criteria276
16.7Cooling and Refrigeration system292
16.7.1Air292
16.7.2Cooling Water292
16.7.2.1Cooling Towers294
16.7.2.2Classification of Cooling Towers299
16.7.2.3Components of Cooling Tower314
16.7.2.4Cooling Tower Controls321
16.7.2.5Cooling Tower Layout considerations322
16.7.2.6Cooling Tower Specification322
16.8Cooling Tower Side Stream Filter323
16.9Refrigerants335
16.9.1Introduction335
16.9.2Determination of System Capacity337
16.9.3Fluid Data344
16.9.4Operational Requirements344
16.9.5Absorption refrigeration347
16.9.6Aqueous Ammonia System348
16.9.7Utility Flow Diagram350
16.9.8Equipment Sizing Criteria351
16.10Chilled Water Systems & Applications354
16.11Water Treatment367
16.11.1Introduction367
16.11.2Water Sources367
16.11.3Impurities in Water367
16.11.4Chemical reactions involved in water treatment376
16.11.5Water Treatment Schemes379
16.11.5.1Surface and Ground Water Treatment379
16.11.5.2Sea Water Desalination/Reverse Osmosis Treatment380
16.11.5.3Desalination381
16.11.5.4Comparison of the three major desalination technologies392
16.11.5.5Other Processes for Desalination395
16.12Water Treatment Methods and Process Equipments396
16.12.1Pretreatment & Pretreatment Process Equipment Details396
16.12.2Membrane System404
16.12.2.2Membrane Separation & Ion Exchange404
16.12.2.3Ion Exchange/Demineralization425
16.12.2.4Co-Current and Counter-Current Regeneration432
16.12.2.5Neutralization of Regenerant Effluent433
16.12.2.6Polishing or Conditioning Treatment439
16.12.2.7Waste/Sludge Handling & Disposal441
16.12.2.8Condensate Treatment442
16.13Waste Water Treatment (Effluent Treatment)446
16.13.1Introduction446
16.13.3Water Treatment Schemes450
16.13.4Waste Water Treatment Methods and Process Equipments453
16.13.5Enquiry Specification of ETP468
16.14References469