Chapter 22: Steam and Gas Turbines

22.1 Introduction 4
22.1.1 Steam Turbines / Gas turbines related important references 4
22.2 Steam Turbines 4
22.2.1 Principle of Operation of Steam Turbine 4
22.2.1.1 Curtis Stage 5
22.2.1.2 Other Types of Stages 6
22.2.1.3 Compounding of Steam Turbines 7
22.2.2 Turbine Classification 10
22.2.2.1 Mechanical drive turbines 11
22.2.2.2 Classifications of Mechanical Drive Turbines 11
22.3 Turbine and Cycle Efficiency 12
22.4 Types of Steam Turbines 13
22.4.1 Backpressure or Noncondensing 13
22.4.2 Condensing Steam Turbines 14
22.4.3 Extraction Turbines 16
22.4.4 Induction Turbine 17
22.5 Types of Applications 18
22.6 Mechanical Components 18
22.6.1 Trip and Throttle Valve 20
22.6.2 Governor Valve 20
22.6.3 Inlet Control Valves 20
22.6.4 Steam Chest 21
22.6.5 Hand Valve 22
22.6.6 Nozzles 22
22.6.7 Blades 22
22.6.8 Bearings and Lubrication Systems 22
22.6.9 Steam and Oil Seals 23
22.7 Steam Turbine Process Calculations 23
22.7.1 Example Calculation 23
22.7.2 Turbines with Saturated Exhaust Steam 36
22.7.3 Efficiencies of Steam Turbines for Use in Calculations 37
22.8 Use of Hand Valves to Maximize Efficiency 39
22.9 Theoretical Steam Rate Tables 40
22.10 Performance Curves 41
22.11 Losses in Steam Turbines 42
22.12 Control of Steam Turbines 43
22.13 Glossary of Steam Turbines 53
22.14 Introduction to Gas Turbines 54
22.15 How a Gas Turbine Works 54
22.16 Major Components 55
22.17 Gas Turbine Types 57
22.17.1 Heavy Duty 57
22.17.2 Aircraft Derivative 57
22.18 Gas Turbine Configurations 59
22.18.1 Single-Shaft 59
22.18.2 Dual Shaft Gas Turbine 59
22.18.3 Three-Shaft Gas Turbine 61
22.19 Available Models of Gas Turbines 63
22.20 Fuels for Gas Turbines 63
22.21 Gas Turbine Cycles 63
22.21.1 Efficiency Definitions 64
22.21.1.1 Simple Cycle 64
22.21.1.2 Other Cycles 64
22.22 Gas Turbine Performance Calculations 67
22.23 Gas Turbine Performance Curves 68
22.24 Auxiliary Equipment 74
22.25 Control Systems 74
22.26 Optimum overrating 78
22.27 Gas Turbine Inlet & Outlet Treatment 78
22.28 Specification of Gas Turbines 80
22.29 Glossary for Gas Turbines 82
22.30 References 84

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