Chapter 22: Steam and Gas Turbines

22.1Introduction4
22.1.1Steam Turbines / Gas turbines related important references4
22.2Steam Turbines4
22.2.1Principle of Operation of Steam Turbine4
22.2.1.1Curtis Stage5
22.2.1.2Other Types of Stages6
22.2.1.3Compounding of Steam Turbines7
22.2.2Turbine Classification10
22.2.2.1Mechanical drive turbines11
22.2.2.2Classifications of Mechanical Drive Turbines11
22.3Turbine and Cycle Efficiency12
22.4Types of Steam Turbines13
22.4.1Backpressure or Noncondensing13
22.4.2Condensing Steam Turbines14
22.4.3Extraction Turbines16
22.4.4Induction Turbine17
22.5Types of Applications18
22.6Mechanical Components18
22.6.1Trip and Throttle Valve20
22.6.2Governor Valve20
22.6.3Inlet Control Valves20
22.6.4Steam Chest21
22.6.5Hand Valve22
22.6.6Nozzles22
22.6.7Blades22
22.6.8Bearings and Lubrication Systems22
22.6.9Steam and Oil Seals23
22.7Steam Turbine Process Calculations23
22.7.1Example Calculation23
22.7.2Turbines with Saturated Exhaust Steam36
22.7.3Efficiencies of Steam Turbines for Use in Calculations37
22.8Use of Hand Valves to Maximize Efficiency39
22.9Theoretical Steam Rate Tables40
22.10Performance Curves41
22.11Losses in Steam Turbines42
22.12Control of Steam Turbines43
22.13Glossary of Steam Turbines53
22.14Introduction to Gas Turbines54
22.15How a Gas Turbine Works54
22.16Major Components55
22.17Gas Turbine Types57
22.17.1Heavy Duty57
22.17.2Aircraft Derivative57
22.18Gas Turbine Configurations59
22.18.1Single-Shaft59
22.18.2Dual Shaft Gas Turbine59
22.18.3Three-Shaft Gas Turbine61
22.19Available Models of Gas Turbines63
22.20Fuels for Gas Turbines63
22.21Gas Turbine Cycles63
22.21.1Efficiency Definitions64
22.21.1.1Simple Cycle64
22.21.1.2Other Cycles64
22.22Gas Turbine Performance Calculations67
22.23Gas Turbine Performance Curves68
22.24Auxiliary Equipment74
22.25Control Systems74
22.26Optimum overrating78
22.27Gas Turbine Inlet & Outlet Treatment78
22.28Specification of Gas Turbines80
22.29Glossary for Gas Turbines82
22.30References84