Chapter 23: Leaching and Extraction

23.1Introduction3
23.1.1Related important references3
23.1.2Leaching and Extraction3
23.2Leaching3
23.2.1Preparation of Solid Leaching4
23.3Equipment used in Leaching Operations5
23.3.1Discontinuous extraction5
23.3.1.1Discontinuous Apparatus6
23.3.2Continuous extraction7
23.3.2.1Continuous extraction apparatus8
23.4Process Calculation Methods for Leaching14
23.4.1Equilibrium Relations and Single-Stage Leaching14
23.4.2Few terminology definitions14
23.4.3Calculation of the Number of Stages15
23.4.4Leaching Calculation Examples18
23.5Liquid-Liquid Extraction25
23.5.1Typical examples in CPI25
23.5.2Comparison between Liquid-liquid extraction and Distillation25
23.5.3Solvent Selection Criteria26
23.6Equipment Involved in Liquid-Liquid Extraction27
23.6.1Single step mixer-settler27
23.6.2Continuous28
23.7Process Calculation Methods38
23.7.1Conjugate line42
23.7.2Separation factor43
23.7.3.1Effect of Temperature on Solubility Diagram45
23.7.4Equilibrium data on Rectangular Diagram46
23.7.4.1Addition of two streams47
23.7.4.2Subtraction of two streams48
23.7.5Methods of Operation (Types of contact)48
23.8Continuous contact (packed or spray columns)54
23.9Examples of Liquid-Liquid Extraction Calculations56
23.10References77