Chapter 6: Heat Exchangers

6.1 Introduction 4
6.1.1 Heat Exchanger related important references 4
6.2 Basic Heat Transfer Fundamentals 4
6.3 Types of Heat Exchangers 6
6.4 Shell & Tube Type Heat Exchangers 18
6.4.1 TEMA Types 18
6.4.2 Heat Transfer Equipment Overdesign 24
6.4.3 Number of Shells 24
6.4.4 Parts identification in various Shell & tube heat exchangers 25
6.4.5 Tube Type 28
6.4.6 Tube Length 28
6.4.7 Tube Diameter and Wall Thickness 28
6.4.8 Ferrules 29
6.4.9 Tube Layout 29
6.4.9.1 Tube Pitch 30
6.4.10 Cross Baffles 31
6.4.10.1 Baffle Cut 32
6.4.11 Seal Strips 36
6.4.12 Impingement Protection 36
6.4.13 Vapor Distribution Belt 37
6.4.14 Tube Side Flow 37
6.4.15 Fouling Factors 38
6.4.16 Pressure Drop Allowances 43
6.4.17 Steam as a Heating Medium 44
6.4.18 Pinch Analysis for Exchanger Networks 45
6.4.19 Vibration 46
6.5 Data Sheet Preparation for S&T Exchanger 48
6.5.1 Selection of Design Case 48
6.5.2 Specification of Overdesign Factor 48
6.5.3 Fluid Properties 48
6.5.4 Heating Curves 48
6.5.5 Design Pressure and Temperature 48
6.5.6 Supplemental Design Notes 48
6.5.7 Preliminary Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients 49
6.6 Air Cooled Heat Exchangers (ACHE) 56
6.6.1 Cooling Water vs. Air Cooling 56
6.6.2 Advantages of Air Coolers 56
6.6.3 Disadvantages / Limitations of Air Coolers 57
6.6.4 Design Data for ACHE 57
6.6.5 Specific Design Considerations for Air Coolers 58
6.6.6 Air Cooler arrangements 60
6.6.7 Tube Side Design 63
6.6.8 Air Cooled Heat Exchanger Sizing and Optimization 64
6.6.9 Basics of Air Cooled Heat Exchangers 67
6.6.9.1 Components 67
6.6.9.2 Tube Bundle 68
6.6.9.3 Fins 69
6.6.9.4 Header Design 72
6.6.9.5 Header Piping 74
6.6.9.6 Axial Flow Fans 76
6.6.9.7 Plenum 77
6.6.9.8 Mechanical Equipment 77
6.6.9.9 Structure 78
6.6.9.9 Structure 78
6.6.9.11 Thermal Design 79
6.6.9.12 Typical Overall heat transfer coefficient 79
6.6.9.13 Fan Selection – Horsepower Requirements 81
6.6.10 Performance Control of ACHEs 82
6.6.11 Air Cooler Location 88
6.6.12 Design of ACHEs for Viscous Liquids 88
6.6.13 Datasheet Preparation for Air Cooled Heat Exchanger 91
6.6.13.1 Selection of Design Case 91
6.6.13.2 Specification of Overdesign Factor 91
6.6.13.3 Fluid Properties 92
6.6.13.4 Cooling Curves 92
6.6.13.5 Design Pressure and Temperature 92
6.6.13.6 Supplemental Design Notes 92
6.6.14 References 93

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