Chapter 6: Heat Exchangers

6.1Introduction4
6.1.1Heat Exchanger related important references4
6.2Basic Heat Transfer Fundamentals4
6.3Types of Heat Exchangers6
6.4Shell & Tube Type Heat Exchangers18
6.4.1TEMA Types18
6.4.2Heat Transfer Equipment Overdesign24
6.4.3Number of Shells24
6.4.4Parts identification in various Shell & tube heat exchangers25
6.4.5Tube Type28
6.4.6Tube Length28
6.4.7Tube Diameter and Wall Thickness28
6.4.8Ferrules29
6.4.9Tube Layout29
6.4.9.1Tube Pitch30
6.4.10Cross Baffles31
6.4.10.1Baffle Cut32
6.4.11Seal Strips36
6.4.12Impingement Protection36
6.4.13Vapor Distribution Belt37
6.4.14Tube Side Flow37
6.4.15Fouling Factors38
6.4.16Pressure Drop Allowances43
6.4.17Steam as a Heating Medium44
6.4.18Pinch Analysis for Exchanger Networks45
6.4.19Vibration46
6.5Data Sheet Preparation for S&T Exchanger48
6.5.1Selection of Design Case48
6.5.2Specification of Overdesign Factor48
6.5.3Fluid Properties48
6.5.4Heating Curves48
6.5.5Design Pressure and Temperature48
6.5.6Supplemental Design Notes48
6.5.7Preliminary Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients49
6.6Air Cooled Heat Exchangers (ACHE)56
6.6.1Cooling Water vs. Air Cooling56
6.6.2Advantages of Air Coolers56
6.6.3Disadvantages / Limitations of Air Coolers57
6.6.4Design Data for ACHE57
6.6.5Specific Design Considerations for Air Coolers58
6.6.6Air Cooler arrangements60
6.6.7Tube Side Design63
6.6.8Air Cooled Heat Exchanger Sizing and Optimization64
6.6.9Basics of Air Cooled Heat Exchangers67
6.6.9.1Components67
6.6.9.2Tube Bundle68
6.6.9.3Fins69
6.6.9.4Header Design72
6.6.9.5Header Piping74
6.6.9.6Axial Flow Fans76
6.6.9.7Plenum77
6.6.9.8Mechanical Equipment77
6.6.9.9Structure78
6.6.9.9Structure78
6.6.9.11Thermal Design79
6.6.9.12Typical Overall heat transfer coefficient79
6.6.9.13Fan Selection – Horsepower Requirements81
6.6.10Performance Control of ACHEs82
6.6.11Air Cooler Location88
6.6.12Design of ACHEs for Viscous Liquids88
6.6.13Datasheet Preparation for Air Cooled Heat Exchanger91
6.6.13.1Selection of Design Case91
6.6.13.2Specification of Overdesign Factor91
6.6.13.3Fluid Properties92
6.6.13.4Cooling Curves92
6.6.13.5Design Pressure and Temperature92
6.6.13.6Supplemental Design Notes92
6.6.14References93