Chapter 7: Pressure vessels, Tanks and Bullets

7.1Introduction3
7.1.1Related important references3
7.2Pressure Vessels3
7.2.1Definition3
7.2.2Types of equipment coming under pressure vessel category3
7.2.3Codes and Standards3
7.2.3.1Pressure Vessel codes of few countries4
7.2.3.2ASME Section I6
7.2.3.3ASME Section VIII Division I6
7.2.3.4ASME Section VIII Division II7
7.2.3.5ASME Section VIII, Division III7
7.2.3.6ANSI CODE7
7.2.3.7Non-Code Vessels8
7.3Process Engineer’s Role8
7.4Storage Tanks11
7.4.1Definitions11
7.4.2Specifying Storage Requirements11
7.4.3Tank Services12
7.4.4Classification of Products13
7.4.5Tank Types13
7.4.5.1Low Pressure Storage Tanks14
7.4.5.2Floating Roof Tanks18
7.4.5.3Spheres and Bullets22
7.4.5.4Refrigerated / Cryogenic Storage24
7.4.5.5Mounded Bullets31
7.4.6Guidelines for Location and Spacing33
7.4.7General Appurtenances33
7.4.7.1Nozzles33
7.4.7.2Tank Heating33
7.4.7.3Protective Coatings34
7.4.7.4Tank Mixing34
7.4.7.5Draw-Off Sump39
7.4.8Tank Breathing39
7.4.8.1Determination of Normal Vacuum/Venting Capacities40
7.4.8.2Determination of Pressure Set Points on Blanketed Tanks41
7.4.8.3Determination of Emergency Venting Capacity43
7.4.8.4Pressure/vacuum valves for Floating Roof Tanks43
7.4.9Safety Considerations46
7.4.10Design Considerations for Tankfarm Layout47
7.4.11Corrosion Allowance54
7.4.12Sizing54
7.4.13Process Datasheet Preparation54
7.5References58