Chapter 7: Pressure vessels, Tanks and Bullets

7.1 Introduction 3
7.1.1 Related important references 3
7.2 Pressure Vessels 3
7.2.1 Definition 3
7.2.2 Types of equipment coming under pressure vessel category 3
7.2.3 Codes and Standards 3
7.2.3.1 Pressure Vessel codes of few countries 4
7.2.3.2 ASME Section I 6
7.2.3.3 ASME Section VIII Division I 6
7.2.3.4 ASME Section VIII Division II 7
7.2.3.5 ASME Section VIII, Division III 7
7.2.3.6 ANSI CODE 7
7.2.3.7 Non-Code Vessels 8
7.3 Process Engineer’s Role 8
7.4 Storage Tanks 11
7.4.1 Definitions 11
7.4.2 Specifying Storage Requirements 11
7.4.3 Tank Services 12
7.4.4 Classification of Products 13
7.4.5 Tank Types 13
7.4.5.1 Low Pressure Storage Tanks 14
7.4.5.2 Floating Roof Tanks 18
7.4.5.3 Spheres and Bullets 22
7.4.5.4 Refrigerated / Cryogenic Storage 24
7.4.5.5 Mounded Bullets 31
7.4.6 Guidelines for Location and Spacing 33
7.4.7 General Appurtenances 33
7.4.7.1 Nozzles 33
7.4.7.2 Tank Heating 33
7.4.7.3 Protective Coatings 34
7.4.7.4 Tank Mixing 34
7.4.7.5 Draw-Off Sump 39
7.4.8 Tank Breathing 39
7.4.8.1 Determination of Normal Vacuum/Venting Capacities 40
7.4.8.2 Determination of Pressure Set Points on Blanketed Tanks 41
7.4.8.3 Determination of Emergency Venting Capacity 43
7.4.8.4 Pressure/vacuum valves for Floating Roof Tanks 43
7.4.9 Safety Considerations 46
7.4.10 Design Considerations for Tankfarm Layout 47
7.4.11 Corrosion Allowance 54
7.4.12 Sizing 54
7.4.13 Process Datasheet Preparation 54
7.5 References 58

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