Chapter: 2 General (Sub Index)

2.0Introduction4
2.1Units of measurement4
2.1.1General4
2.1.2SI Terminology4
2.1.3Imperial Terminology5
2.1.4Stream Flowrates6
2.1.5Standard Conditions6
2.1.6Generic Site Considerations7
2.2Design Codes and Recommended Practices8
2.2.1List of Standards Organizations by Equipment Categories8
2.2.2List of Major Codes and Standards11
2.3Simulations and process design15
2.3.1Types of Simulations15
2.3.2Components of a Simulator18
2.3.3Simulation Programs18
2.3.4Basic Steps and Decisions for Simulation18
2.3.4.1The Basic Steps of a Simulation Study18
2.3.4.2Decisions for Simulating19
2.3.4.3Steps and Decisions for Conducting a Simulation Study20
2.3.4.4The phases of making a simulation file21
2.3.4.5Flow sheeting22
2.3.4.6Modelling Levels22
2.3.4.7Calculation steps23
2.3.5Recommended Property Packages and Methods24
2.3.5.1Oils and Hypotheticals25
2.3.5.2Feed Conditions and Product Specifications28
2.4Design conditions for equipment and piping30
2.4.1Design Pressure30
2.4.2Design Temperature31
2.4.3Design Margins33
2.4.4Manning Philosophy34
2.4.5Software utilized by Process Engineers35
2.5Fluid Property Calculation Methods35
2.5.1Characterization properties36
2.5.2Pure Substance Properties42
2.5.3Ideal gas properties45
2.5.4Bulk (PVT) properties of fluids48
2.5.5Transport properties51
2.5.6Phase Equilibrium Properties57
2.5.6.1Phase behavior and phase diagrams57
2.5.6.2PVT phase diagrams58
2.5.6.3Compositional phase diagrams60
2.5.6.4Fugacity and fugacity coefficient64
2.5.6.5Activity and activity coefficient65
2.5.6.6Vapor-liquid equilibrium calculation66
2.5.6.7Standard state fugacity67
2.5.6.8Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Computation Methods70
2.6Dimensionless Numbers used in Process Engineering73
2.7Thermodynamics81
2.7.1System models82
2.7.2Interactions of thermodynamic systems83
2.7.3Homogeneous and Heterogeneous system83
2.7.4Types of ThermodynamicSystems84
2.7.5Macroscopic System85
2.7.6States and Processes85
2.7.6.1Thermodynamic Equilibrium86
2.7.6.2Process87
2.7.6.3Extensive and Intensive Properties88
2.7.6.4Work and Heat88
2.7.7Reversible and Irreversible processes90
2.7.8Change of Phase92
2.7.8.1Saturation92
2.7.8.2Saturated and Subcooled Liquids92
2.7.8.3Quality93
2.7.8.4Moisture Content93
2.7.8.5Saturated and Superheated Vapors94
2.7.8.6Constant Pressure Heat Addition94
2.7.8.7Critical Point94
2.7.8.8Fusion95
2.7.8.9Sublimation95
2.7.8.10Triple Point95
2.7.8.11Condensation96
2.7.9Property Diagrams96
2.7.10Thermodynamic Definitions101
2.8Stoichiometry108
2.8.1Glossary in Stoichiometry116
2.9Reaction Chemistry and Reactors119
2.10Units Conversion in Process Engineering124
2.11References138