Chapter: 2 General (Sub Index)

2.0 Introduction 4
2.1 Units of measurement 4
2.1.1 General 4
2.1.2 SI Terminology 4
2.1.3 Imperial Terminology 5
2.1.4 Stream Flowrates 6
2.1.5 Standard Conditions 6
2.1.6 Generic Site Considerations 7
2.2 Design Codes and Recommended Practices 8
2.2.1 List of Standards Organizations by Equipment Categories 8
2.2.2 List of Major Codes and Standards 11
2.3 Simulations and process design 15
2.3.1 Types of Simulations 15
2.3.2 Components of a Simulator 18
2.3.3 Simulation Programs 18
2.3.4 Basic Steps and Decisions for Simulation 18
2.3.4.1 The Basic Steps of a Simulation Study 18
2.3.4.2 Decisions for Simulating 19
2.3.4.3 Steps and Decisions for Conducting a Simulation Study 20
2.3.4.4 The phases of making a simulation file 21
2.3.4.5 Flow sheeting 22
2.3.4.6 Modelling Levels 22
2.3.4.7 Calculation steps 23
2.3.5 Recommended Property Packages and Methods 24
2.3.5.1 Oils and Hypotheticals 25
2.3.5.2 Feed Conditions and Product Specifications 28
2.4 Design conditions for equipment and piping 30
2.4.1 Design Pressure 30
2.4.2 Design Temperature 31
2.4.3 Design Margins 33
2.4.4 Manning Philosophy 34
2.4.5 Software utilized by Process Engineers 35
2.5 Fluid Property Calculation Methods 35
2.5.1 Characterization properties 36
2.5.2 Pure Substance Properties 42
2.5.3 Ideal gas properties 45
2.5.4 Bulk (PVT) properties of fluids 48
2.5.5 Transport properties 51
2.5.6 Phase Equilibrium Properties 57
2.5.6.1 Phase behavior and phase diagrams 57
2.5.6.2 PVT phase diagrams 58
2.5.6.3 Compositional phase diagrams 60
2.5.6.4 Fugacity and fugacity coefficient 64
2.5.6.5 Activity and activity coefficient 65
2.5.6.6 Vapor-liquid equilibrium calculation 66
2.5.6.7 Standard state fugacity 67
2.5.6.8 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Computation Methods 70
2.6 Dimensionless Numbers used in Process Engineering 73
2.7 Thermodynamics 81
2.7.1 System models 82
2.7.2 Interactions of thermodynamic systems 83
2.7.3 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous system 83
2.7.4 Types of ThermodynamicSystems 84
2.7.5 Macroscopic System 85
2.7.6 States and Processes 85
2.7.6.1 Thermodynamic Equilibrium 86
2.7.6.2 Process 87
2.7.6.3 Extensive and Intensive Properties 88
2.7.6.4 Work and Heat 88
2.7.7 Reversible and Irreversible processes 90
2.7.8 Change of Phase 92
2.7.8.1 Saturation 92
2.7.8.2 Saturated and Subcooled Liquids 92
2.7.8.3 Quality 93
2.7.8.4 Moisture Content 93
2.7.8.5 Saturated and Superheated Vapors 94
2.7.8.6 Constant Pressure Heat Addition 94
2.7.8.7 Critical Point 94
2.7.8.8 Fusion 95
2.7.8.9 Sublimation 95
2.7.8.10 Triple Point 95
2.7.8.11 Condensation 96
2.7.9 Property Diagrams 96
2.7.10 Thermodynamic Definitions 101
2.8 Stoichiometry 108
2.8.1 Glossary in Stoichiometry 116
2.9 Reaction Chemistry and Reactors 119
2.10 Units Conversion in Process Engineering 124
2.11 References 138

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