Chapter 4: Compressors

4.1 Introduction 4
4.1.1 Compressors related important references 4
4.1.2 Industry Codes and Standards 4
4.2 Compressor Types 5
4.3 Compressor Selection 6
4.4 Centrifugal / Axial Compressor Selection 11
4.4.1 Advantages Attributed to Centrifugal Compressors 11
4.4.2 Limitations of Centrifugal Compressors 12
4.4.3 Axial Compressor Advantages 13
4.4.4 Axial Compressor Disadvantages 13
4.4.5 Dynamic compressor components and functions 16
4.4.6 Thermodynamic Equations for Gas Compression 18
4.4.7 Head Calculation 20
4.4.8 Polytropic Efficiency 21
4.4.9 Compressor Discharge Temperature 22
4.4.10 Power Requirements 22
4.4.11 Mollier Diagram Method 23
4.4.11.1 Application of Mollier Diagram 24
4.4.12 Casing Arrangements 28
4.4.13 Performance Curves for Centrifugal and Axial Compressors 30
4.4.13.1 Actual Volume 32
4.4.14 Fan Laws 33
4.4.15 Axial Compressor Basic Theory 34
4.4.16 Efficiency of an Operating Machine 34
4.4.17 Example of calculation of gas properties 37
4.4.18 Centrifugal Compressor Calculation Examples 42
4.4.19 Axial Compressors Sizing Example 46
4.4.20 Glossary for Centrifugal / Axial Compressor 49
4.5 Reciprocating Compressor Selection 52
4.5.1 Principle of Operation 52
4.5.2 Lubrication 56
4.5.3 Advantages Attributed to Reciprocating Compressors 58
4.5.4 Limitations of Reciprocating Compressors 58
4.5.5 Pulsation Control in Reciprocating compressors 60
4.5.6 Performance Calculations for Reciprocating compressor 60
4.5.6.1 Intercoolers 62
4.5.6.2 Volumetric Efficiency 62
4.5.6.3 Power Calculation for reciprocating compressor 65
4.5.6.4 Typical Compression ratios 67
4.5.6.5 Size ratings for reciprocating compressors 68
4.5.7 Reciprocating Compressor Calculations 68
4.5.8 Glossary for Reciprocating Compressor 77
4.6 Rotary Compressor Selection 80
4.6.1 Rotary compressors- general design considerations 86
4.7 Specialized Compression Equipment 92
4.7.1 Ejectors 92
4.7.2 Diaphragm Compressor 92
4.7.3 Scroll Compressor 93
4.8 Miscellaneous Parts for Compressors 95
4.8.1 Couplings 95
4.8.2 Gears 98
4.8.3 Bearings 99
4.8.3.1 Bearing Lubrication 101
4.8.4 Packing Glands 105
4.8.5 Compressor Seals 105
4.8.6 Vibration Monitoring Techniques 112
4.9 Definitions and Formulae 114
4.10 Process Datasheet Preparation 118
4.10.1 Design Cases 119
4.10.2 Specification of Overdesign Factor 119
4.10.3 Fluid Properties 119
4.10.4 Setting Compression Ratios 120
4.10.5 Process Staging 120
4.10.6 Compressor Efficiency 121
4.10.7 Sparing Philosophy 121
4.10.8 Design Pressure and Temperature 122
4.11 Process Control 123
4.11.1 Centrifugal Compressors 123
4.11.1.1 Phenomena of Surge in Centrifugal compressors 123
4.11.1.2 Antisurge Control for Compressed Air Centrifugal Compressors 130
4.11.1.3 Stonewall 131
4.11.1.4 Centrifugal Compressor Control 131
4.11.2 Axial Compressor Control 137
4.11.3 Reciprocating Compressors Process Control 140
4.11.4 Screw Compressors Process Control 141
4.12 Determination of Design Pressure in Centrifugal
Compressor System
143
4.13 References 149

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