Chapter 19: Evaporators

19.1 Introduction 3
19.1.1 Evaporators related important references 3
19.2 Types of Evaporators 3
19.2.1 Natural circulation type 3
19.2.2 Forced-Circulation Evaporator 12
19.2.3 Agitated Thin Film Evaporators 18
19.2.4 Horizontal Tube Evaporators 19
19.2.5 Plate Heat Exchanger Evaporator 21
19.3 Special Evaporator Types 22
19.4 Evaporator Auxiliaries 25
19.5 Selection of Evaporators 26
19.6 Energy Efficiency of Evaporation Plants 26
19.6.1 Multiple-effect evaporation 27
19.6.2 Thermal vapour recompression 28
19.6.3 Mechanical vapour recompression 28
19.7 Mass/energy flow diagrams of an evaporator with
Different types of heating
29
19.8 Methods of Feeding of Evaporators 31
19.9 Performance of Evaporators (Capacity and Economy) 33
19.9.1 Thermal/ Process Design Considerations 34
19.9.2 Single-effect evaporation 36
19.9.3 Multiple-Effect Evaporator Systems 38
19.9.3.1 Capacity and Economy of Multiple-Effect Evaporators 38
19.9.3.2 Effect of boiling-point elevation on capacity of evaporators 38
19.9.3.3 Effect of liquid head and friction on temperature drop 41
19.10 Mechanical Design Considerations 41
19.11 Multiple effect calculations 42
19.12 Examples of Process Calculations for Evaporation 45
19.13 Process Data Sheet of Package Evaporation Plant 57
19.14 References 62

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