Chapter 19: Evaporators

19.1Introduction3
19.1.1Evaporators related important references3
19.2Types of Evaporators3
19.2.1Natural circulation type3
19.2.2Forced-Circulation Evaporator12
19.2.3Agitated Thin Film Evaporators18
19.2.4Horizontal Tube Evaporators19
19.2.5Plate Heat Exchanger Evaporator21
19.3Special Evaporator Types22
19.4Evaporator Auxiliaries25
19.5Selection of Evaporators26
19.6Energy Efficiency of Evaporation Plants26
19.6.1Multiple-effect evaporation27
19.6.2Thermal vapour recompression28
19.6.3Mechanical vapour recompression28
19.7Mass/energy flow diagrams of an evaporator with
Different types of heating
29
19.8Methods of Feeding of Evaporators31
19.9Performance of Evaporators (Capacity and Economy)33
19.9.1Thermal/ Process Design Considerations34
19.9.2Single-effect evaporation36
19.9.3Multiple-Effect Evaporator Systems38
19.9.3.1Capacity and Economy of Multiple-Effect Evaporators38
19.9.3.2Effect of boiling-point elevation on capacity of evaporators38
19.9.3.3Effect of liquid head and friction on temperature drop41
19.10Mechanical Design Considerations41
19.11Multiple effect calculations42
19.12Examples of Process Calculations for Evaporation45
19.13Process Data Sheet of Package Evaporation Plant57
19.14References62