Chapter 24: Special Process Items

24.0Introduction5
24.1Flame arresters5
24.1.1Master types8
24.1.2Flash back and flame arresters11
24.1.2.1Classification of flash back arresters11
24.1.2.2Causes of flash back11
24.1.2.3Reasons for using flame arresters12
24.1.2.4Flash back arrester placement12
24.1.2.5Working of a flash back arrester12
24.1.3Flammability13
24.1.4Flashback prevention methods16
24.1.5Locations of installations of flame arresters17
24.1.6Flashback interruption methods21
24.1.6.1Detonation arrester certification classes22
24.2Spray nozzles26
24.2.1Single fluid nozzle26
24.2.2Two Fluid nozzles29
24.2.3Rotary atomizers30
24.2.4Ultrasonic atomizer30
24.2.5Spray nozzles for pipeline applications31
24.2.6Spray nozzle performance factors32
24.2.6.1Nozzle wear33
24.2.7Material of construction33
24.3Insulation34
24.3.1Insulation selection34
24.3.2Insulation types34
24.3.3Common insulation types38
24.3.4Protective coatings and finishes42
24.3.5Heat loss calculation42
24.4Vortex breakers49
24.5Static mixers53
24.5.1Coefficient of variation54
24.5.2Benefits of static mixers55
24.5.3Principles of operation56
24.5.4Types and applications56
24.5.5Process data to be provided60
24.6Manual Valves62
24.6.1Types of valves63
24.6.1.1Gate valves66
24.6.1.2Globe valve71
24.6.1.2.1Globe valve body designs72
24.6.1.2.2Globe valve disks73
24.6.1.2.3Globe valve seats74
24.6.1.2.4Globe valve direction of flow74
24.6.1.3Ball valves74
24.6.1.3.1Ball valve stem design76
24.6.1.3.2Ball valve bonnet76
24.6.1.3.3Ball valve position76
24.6.1.4Plug valves76
24.6.1.4.1Plug port77
24.6.1.4.2Multiport plug valves77
24.6.1.4.3Plug valve disk78
24.6.1.4.4Manually operated valve location79
24.6.1.5Diaphragm valves79
24.6.1.5.1Diaphragm construction80
24.6.1.6Pinch valves81
24.6.1.6.1Pinch valve bodies81
24.6.1.7Butterfly valves82
24.6.1.7.1Butterfly valve seat construction82
24.6.1.7.2Butterfly valve body construction83
24.6.1.8Needle valve83
24.6.1.8.1Needle valve applications84
24.6.1.9Check valves84
24.6.1.9.1Special check valves89
24.6.2Materials of construction91
24.6.3Automatic Recycle valve93
24.6.4Air Release valves / combination valves96
24.6.4.1Air valves97
24.6.4.1.1Types of air valves98
24.6.4.2Special types of valves104
24.6.4.3Locations of air valves104
24.6.4.4Air valve sizing106
24.6.4.5Sizing of air /vacuum release valves106
24.6.4.6Process specification for ARVs111
24.7Liquid filtration117
24.7.1Types of filtration117
24.7.2Filter selection118
24.8Cartridge filters128
24.9Strainers135
24.9.1Strainers in pump suction135
24.9.2Basket type strainers136
24.9.3Strainer specification136
24.9.4Pressure drop calculation137
24.9.5Strainers in other service138
24.9.6Miscellaneous138
24.9.7Mesh size for basket type strainers138
24.9.8Pressure drop for basket strainers139
24.9.9Temporary strainers146
24.10Immersion heaters148
24.10.1Heater types149
24.10.2Selecting a heater151
24.11Separators inlet devices152
24.11.1Types152
24.11.2Selection of inlet cyclonic type device158
24.12API Separators161
24.12.1Stoke’s law163
24.12.2Rate of rise theory164
24.12.3API performance factors165
24.12.4API Separator design criteria165
24.13Tilted plate separators / Corrugated plate separators171
24.13.1Process description TPI system172
24.13.2Typical Removal rates173
24.14Hoses & Hose couplings175
24.14.1Definitions175
24.14.2Selection of type 1 hose175
24.14.3Selection of type 2 hose176
24.15Pressure Reduction and Desuperheating station (PRDS)177
24.15.1Sample calculation178
24.15.2Types179
24.15.3PRDS183
24.15.4Engineering Guidelines for PRDS184
24.16Restriction Orifices185
24.16.1Design procedure185
24.17Silencers (Noise Attenuation)188
24.17.1Definitions188
24.17.2Noise level requirements188
24.17.3Silencers for atmospheric vents189
24.17.4Silencer selection factors190
24.18Exhaust Heads191