Chapter 24: Special Process Items

24.0 Introduction 5
24.1 Flame arresters 5
24.1.1 Master types 8
24.1.2 Flash back and flame arresters 11
24.1.2.1 Classification of flash back arresters 11
24.1.2.2 Causes of flash back 11
24.1.2.3 Reasons for using flame arresters 12
24.1.2.4 Flash back arrester placement 12
24.1.2.5 Working of a flash back arrester 12
24.1.3 Flammability 13
24.1.4 Flashback prevention methods 16
24.1.5 Locations of installations of flame arresters 17
24.1.6 Flashback interruption methods 21
24.1.6.1 Detonation arrester certification classes 22
24.2 Spray nozzles 26
24.2.1 Single fluid nozzle 26
24.2.2 Two Fluid nozzles 29
24.2.3 Rotary atomizers 30
24.2.4 Ultrasonic atomizer 30
24.2.5 Spray nozzles for pipeline applications 31
24.2.6 Spray nozzle performance factors 32
24.2.6.1 Nozzle wear 33
24.2.7 Material of construction 33
24.3 Insulation 34
24.3.1 Insulation selection 34
24.3.2 Insulation types 34
24.3.3 Common insulation types 38
24.3.4 Protective coatings and finishes 42
24.3.5 Heat loss calculation 42
24.4 Vortex breakers 49
24.5 Static mixers 53
24.5.1 Coefficient of variation 54
24.5.2 Benefits of static mixers 55
24.5.3 Principles of operation 56
24.5.4 Types and applications 56
24.5.5 Process data to be provided 60
24.6 Manual Valves 62
24.6.1 Types of valves 63
24.6.1.1 Gate valves 66
24.6.1.2 Globe valve 71
24.6.1.2.1 Globe valve body designs 72
24.6.1.2.2 Globe valve disks 73
24.6.1.2.3 Globe valve seats 74
24.6.1.2.4 Globe valve direction of flow 74
24.6.1.3 Ball valves 74
24.6.1.3.1 Ball valve stem design 76
24.6.1.3.2 Ball valve bonnet 76
24.6.1.3.3 Ball valve position 76
24.6.1.4 Plug valves 76
24.6.1.4.1 Plug port 77
24.6.1.4.2 Multiport plug valves 77
24.6.1.4.3 Plug valve disk 78
24.6.1.4.4 Manually operated valve location 79
24.6.1.5 Diaphragm valves 79
24.6.1.5.1 Diaphragm construction 80
24.6.1.6 Pinch valves 81
24.6.1.6.1 Pinch valve bodies 81
24.6.1.7 Butterfly valves 82
24.6.1.7.1 Butterfly valve seat construction 82
24.6.1.7.2 Butterfly valve body construction 83
24.6.1.8 Needle valve 83
24.6.1.8.1 Needle valve applications 84
24.6.1.9 Check valves 84
24.6.1.9.1 Special check valves 89
24.6.2 Materials of construction 91
24.6.3 Automatic Recycle valve 93
24.6.4 Air Release valves / combination valves 96
24.6.4.1 Air valves 97
24.6.4.1.1 Types of air valves 98
24.6.4.2 Special types of valves 104
24.6.4.3 Locations of air valves 104
24.6.4.4 Air valve sizing 106
24.6.4.5 Sizing of air /vacuum release valves 106
24.6.4.6 Process specification for ARVs 111
24.7 Liquid filtration 117
24.7.1 Types of filtration 117
24.7.2 Filter selection 118
24.8 Cartridge filters 128
24.9 Strainers 135
24.9.1 Strainers in pump suction 135
24.9.2 Basket type strainers 136
24.9.3 Strainer specification 136
24.9.4 Pressure drop calculation 137
24.9.5 Strainers in other service 138
24.9.6 Miscellaneous 138
24.9.7 Mesh size for basket type strainers 138
24.9.8 Pressure drop for basket strainers 139
24.9.9 Temporary strainers 146
24.10 Immersion heaters 148
24.10.1 Heater types 149
24.10.2 Selecting a heater 151
24.11 Separators inlet devices 152
24.11.1 Types 152
24.11.2 Selection of inlet cyclonic type device 158
24.12 API Separators 161
24.12.1 Stoke’s law 163
24.12.2 Rate of rise theory 164
24.12.3 API performance factors 165
24.12.4 API Separator design criteria 165
24.13 Tilted plate separators / Corrugated plate separators 171
24.13.1 Process description TPI system 172
24.13.2 Typical Removal rates 173
24.14 Hoses & Hose couplings 175
24.14.1 Definitions 175
24.14.2 Selection of type 1 hose 175
24.14.3 Selection of type 2 hose 176
24.15 Pressure Reduction and Desuperheating station (PRDS) 177
24.15.1 Sample calculation 178
24.15.2 Types 179
24.15.3 PRDS 183
24.15.4 Engineering Guidelines for PRDS 184
24.16 Restriction Orifices 185
24.16.1 Design procedure 185
24.17 Silencers (Noise Attenuation) 188
24.17.1 Definitions 188
24.17.2 Noise level requirements 188
24.17.3 Silencers for atmospheric vents 189
24.17.4 Silencer selection factors 190
24.18 Exhaust Heads 191

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