Chapter 24: Special Process Items

24.1Flame arresters5
24.1.1Master types8
24.1.2Flash back and flame arresters11 of flash back arresters11 of flash back11 for using flame arresters12 back arrester placement12 of a flash back arrester12
24.1.4Flashback prevention methods16
24.1.5Locations of installations of flame arresters17
24.1.6Flashback interruption methods21 arrester certification classes22
24.2Spray nozzles26
24.2.1Single fluid nozzle26
24.2.2Two Fluid nozzles29
24.2.3Rotary atomizers30
24.2.4Ultrasonic atomizer30
24.2.5Spray nozzles for pipeline applications31
24.2.6Spray nozzle performance factors32 wear33
24.2.7Material of construction33
24.3.1Insulation selection34
24.3.2Insulation types34
24.3.3Common insulation types38
24.3.4Protective coatings and finishes42
24.3.5Heat loss calculation42
24.4Vortex breakers49
24.5Static mixers53
24.5.1Coefficient of variation54
24.5.2Benefits of static mixers55
24.5.3Principles of operation56
24.5.4Types and applications56
24.5.5Process data to be provided60
24.6Manual Valves62
24.6.1Types of valves63 valves66 valve71 valve body designs72 valve disks73 valve seats74 valve direction of flow74 valves74 valve stem design76 valve bonnet76 valve position76 valves76 port77 plug valves77 valve disk78 operated valve location79 valves79 construction80 valves81 valve bodies81 valves82 valve seat construction82 valve body construction83 valve83 valve applications84 valves84 check valves89
24.6.2Materials of construction91
24.6.3Automatic Recycle valve93
24.6.4Air Release valves / combination valves96 valves97 of air valves98 types of valves104 of air valves104 valve sizing106 of air /vacuum release valves106 specification for ARVs111
24.7Liquid filtration117
24.7.1Types of filtration117
24.7.2Filter selection118
24.8Cartridge filters128
24.9.1Strainers in pump suction135
24.9.2Basket type strainers136
24.9.3Strainer specification136
24.9.4Pressure drop calculation137
24.9.5Strainers in other service138
24.9.7Mesh size for basket type strainers138
24.9.8Pressure drop for basket strainers139
24.9.9Temporary strainers146
24.10Immersion heaters148
24.10.1Heater types149
24.10.2Selecting a heater151
24.11Separators inlet devices152
24.11.2Selection of inlet cyclonic type device158
24.12API Separators161
24.12.1Stoke’s law163
24.12.2Rate of rise theory164
24.12.3API performance factors165
24.12.4API Separator design criteria165
24.13Tilted plate separators / Corrugated plate separators171
24.13.1Process description TPI system172
24.13.2Typical Removal rates173
24.14Hoses & Hose couplings175
24.14.2Selection of type 1 hose175
24.14.3Selection of type 2 hose176
24.15Pressure Reduction and Desuperheating station (PRDS)177
24.15.1Sample calculation178
24.15.4Engineering Guidelines for PRDS184
24.16Restriction Orifices185
24.16.1Design procedure185
24.17Silencers (Noise Attenuation)188
24.17.2Noise level requirements188
24.17.3Silencers for atmospheric vents189
24.17.4Silencer selection factors190
24.18Exhaust Heads191