Chapter 32: Automation and Control

32.1 Introduction 4
32.1.1 Related references 4
32.2 Instrument & Control System – an Overview 4
32.2.1 Local Indicating Type Instruments 4
32.2.2 Remote Indicating Type Instruments 4
32.2.3 Instrument Control system 6
32.2.4 Control Room 8
32.3 Control Valves 8
32.3.1 Selection Criteria 9
32.3.2 Control Valve Sizing Criteria 10
32.3.3 Control Valve Data Sheet 11
32.3.4 Control Valve Selection Rules of Thumb 12
32.4 Process Instrumentation 16
32.4.1 Flow 16
32.4.2 Velocity Flowmeters 22
32.4.3 Inferential (differential pressure) 25
32.4.4 Positive Displacement Meters 34
32.4.5 Mass Flowmeters 40
32.5 Level Measurement 47
32.5.1 Level Sensor Selection 48
32.5.2 Types 50
32.5.3 Boiling & Cryogenic Fluids 62
32.5.4 Sludge, Foam, & Molten Metals 63
32.6 Temperature 64
32.7 Pressure Measurement Instrumentation 68
32.8 Specific Types of Control Systems 70
32.8.1 Process Controls 70
32.8.1.1 Flow Control 70
32.8.1.2 Level Control 71
32.8.1.3 Temperature Control 71
32.8.1.4 Pressure Controls 74
32.9 Alarm Systems 74
32.9.1 Direct Connected Alarms 74
32.9.2 Alarms from Transmitters 76
32.9.3 Alarms from DCS 76
32.10 Recording 76
32.11 Valves 79
32.12 Miscellaneous Systems, Loops and Hand Switching 80
32.13 Centrifugal Pump Control 85
32.14 Positive displacement pump control 85
32.15 Reciprocating Compressors Control Methods 86
32.16 Control Schemes for Screw Compressors 88
32.17 Control Schemes for Centrifugal Compressors 88
32.18 Distillation Column Control 93
32.18.1 Distillation Control Philosophy 95
32.18.2 Other possible disturbances 98
32.19 Column Control Fundamentals 99
32.20 The various types of distillation column control schemes 101
32.20.1 Atmospheric Column Control 102
32.20.2 Pressure Control 102
32.20.3 Temperature Control 120
32.20.4 Control of Column Top Composition 124
32.20.5 Feed Preheat Control 126
32.20.6 Reboiler and Steam Control to Column 128
32.20.7 Vapour Recompression 130
32.20.8 Distillation Column Control Examples 131
32.21 Constraint Control 136
32.22 Miscellaneous Controls 137
32.23 References 138

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