Chapter 3: Pumps

3.1 Introduction 4
3.1.1 Pump Related Important References 4
3.2 International Standards 4
3.2.1 Centrifugal Pump Standards 4
3.2.2 Positive Displacement Pump Standards 5
3.3 Definitions 7
3.4 Abbreviations 8
3.5 Overall Pump Options 10
3.6 Centrifugal Pumps 13
3.6.1 Principle of Operation 14
3.6.2 Head Produced by a Centrifugal Pump 15
3.6.3 Mechanical Components of centrifugal pump 16
3.6.4 Head versus Flow Characteristic for centrifugal pump 17
3.6.5 System Resistance 18
3.6.6 Centrifugal Pump Design Parameters 20
3.6.6.1 Maximum Capacity 20
3.6.6.2 Cut-off Flow 21
3.6.6.3 Minimum Flow 21
3.6.6.4 Pump Power, Differential Head and Efficiency 25
3.6.7 Impellers for Centrifugal pumps 30
3.6.8 Stream Specific Gravity (Multiple Fluids) 32
3.6.9 Pump Shutoff Head 33
3.6.10 Overall Pump Performance 33
3.6.11 Influence of Liquid Properties 33
3.6.12 Impeller Specific Speed for centrifugal pumps 36
3.6.13 Pump Suction Specific Speed 37
3.6.14 Net Positive Head 39
3.6.14.1 NPSHa Calculations for High Vapor Pressure Fluids 42
3.6.15 Flow rate for a fixed temperature rise 44
3.6.16 Cavitation 45
3.6.17 Variable Speed / Frequency Driver Selection 47
3.6.18 Parallel vs. Series Centrifugal Pump Operation 48
3.6.18.1 Parallel Pump Operation 48
3.6.18.2 Series Pump Operation 50
3.6.19 Centrifugal Pump Affinity Laws (also called Fan Laws) 53
3.6.20 Pump Sparing 54
3.6.21 Centrifugal Pump Cooling Water Requirement 55
3.6.22 Typical Centrifugal Pump Models available in Industry 55
3.6.23 Centrifugal Pump Process Calculations 59
3.6.24 Performance Curves 62
3.6.25 Centrifugal Pump Types in CPI 65
3.6.25.1 Horizontal Single Stage Process Pump 68
3.6.25.2 Between-Bearings Impeller Centrifugal Pumps 69
3.6.25.3 Double Suction versus Single Suction Pumps 70
3.6.25.4 Radial Split Case versus Axial Split Case Pumps 72
3.6.25.5 Vertical Inline Pump 72
3.6.25.6 Vertical Sump Pump 74
3.6.25.7 Horizontal Multi-Stage Pump 76
3.6.25.8 Vertical Canned Barrel Pump 79
3.6.25.9 High Speed Centrifugal Pump 80
3.6.25.10 Sealless Canned Style Pumps 82
3.6.25.11 Barrel Unloading centrifugal pumps 83
3.6.25.12 Hydraulic Power Recovery Turbine (HPRT) 84
3.6.25.13 Self Priming Centrifugal Pumps 85
3.6.25.14 Submersible Pumps 86
3.6.25.15 Vertical Multistage Pump 88
3.6.25.16 Jet Pumps 91
3.7 Positive Displacement Pumps 92
3.7.1 Reciprocating Positive Displacement Pumps 93
3.7.1.1 Metering Diaphragm Pumps 93
3.7.1.2 Reciprocating Metering Pumps 95
3.7.2 Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps 103
3.7.3 Screw Pumps 104
3.7.4 Gear Pumps 107
3.7.5 Peristaltic pumps (Hose pumps) 109
3.7.6 Progressive Cavity Pump 109
3.7.7 Sliding Vane Pump 110
3.7.8 Flexible Impeller Pump 111
3.7.9 Lobe Type Pump 111
3.7.10 Performance curve for Positive displacement pumps 112
3.7.11 Process Calculations for Reciprocating pumps 117
3.7.12 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) 119
3.8 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP Seal Selection and Seal Chamber 120
3.8.1 API Seal Flushing Plans 122
3.8.2 Quenching 137
3.9 Control of Pumps 144
3.9.1 Centrifugal Pumps 144
3.9.1.1 Optional Features for Centrifugal Pumps 141
3.9.2 Control of Positive Displacement Pumps 147
3.10 Process Datasheet Sheet of Pumps 149
3.10.1 Pump Specification Sheet 149
3.10.2 Capacity 150
3.10.3 Minimum Required Flow (For Centrifugal Pumps Only) 150
3.10.4 Suction Pressure 150
3.10.5 Discharge Pressure 151
3.10.6 NPSH 151
3.10.7 Power Requirements 153
3.10.8 Pump Efficiency 153
3.10.9 Stream Properties 153
3.11 Examples for Pump Calculations 156
3.12 Centrifugal Pump Glossary 175
3.13 Glossary For Positive Displacement Pumps 178
3.14 References 181

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