Chapter 3: Pumps

3.1Introduction4
3.1.1Pump Related Important References4
3.2International Standards4
3.2.1Centrifugal Pump Standards4
3.2.2Positive Displacement Pump Standards5
3.3Definitions7
3.4Abbreviations8
3.5Overall Pump Options10
3.6Centrifugal Pumps13
3.6.1Principle of Operation14
3.6.2Head Produced by a Centrifugal Pump15
3.6.3Mechanical Components of centrifugal pump16
3.6.4Head versus Flow Characteristic for centrifugal pump17
3.6.5System Resistance18
3.6.6Centrifugal Pump Design Parameters20
3.6.6.1Maximum Capacity20
3.6.6.2Cut-off Flow21
3.6.6.3Minimum Flow21
3.6.6.4Pump Power, Differential Head and Efficiency25
3.6.7Impellers for Centrifugal pumps30
3.6.8Stream Specific Gravity (Multiple Fluids)32
3.6.9Pump Shutoff Head33
3.6.10Overall Pump Performance33
3.6.11Influence of Liquid Properties33
3.6.12Impeller Specific Speed for centrifugal pumps36
3.6.13Pump Suction Specific Speed37
3.6.14Net Positive Head39
3.6.14.1NPSHa Calculations for High Vapor Pressure Fluids42
3.6.15Flow rate for a fixed temperature rise44
3.6.16Cavitation45
3.6.17Variable Speed / Frequency Driver Selection47
3.6.18Parallel vs. Series Centrifugal Pump Operation48
3.6.18.1Parallel Pump Operation48
3.6.18.2Series Pump Operation50
3.6.19Centrifugal Pump Affinity Laws (also called Fan Laws)53
3.6.20Pump Sparing54
3.6.21Centrifugal Pump Cooling Water Requirement55
3.6.22Typical Centrifugal Pump Models available in Industry55
3.6.23Centrifugal Pump Process Calculations59
3.6.24Performance Curves62
3.6.25Centrifugal Pump Types in CPI65
3.6.25.1Horizontal Single Stage Process Pump68
3.6.25.2Between-Bearings Impeller Centrifugal Pumps69
3.6.25.3Double Suction versus Single Suction Pumps70
3.6.25.4Radial Split Case versus Axial Split Case Pumps72
3.6.25.5Vertical Inline Pump72
3.6.25.6Vertical Sump Pump74
3.6.25.7Horizontal Multi-Stage Pump76
3.6.25.8Vertical Canned Barrel Pump79
3.6.25.9High Speed Centrifugal Pump80
3.6.25.10Sealless Canned Style Pumps82
3.6.25.11Barrel Unloading centrifugal pumps83
3.6.25.12Hydraulic Power Recovery Turbine (HPRT)84
3.6.25.13Self Priming Centrifugal Pumps85
3.6.25.14Submersible Pumps86
3.6.25.15Vertical Multistage Pump88
3.6.25.16Jet Pumps91
3.7Positive Displacement Pumps92
3.7.1Reciprocating Positive Displacement Pumps93
3.7.1.1Metering Diaphragm Pumps93
3.7.1.2Reciprocating Metering Pumps95
3.7.2Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps103
3.7.3Screw Pumps104
3.7.4Gear Pumps107
3.7.5Peristaltic pumps (Hose pumps)109
3.7.6Progressive Cavity Pump109
3.7.7Sliding Vane Pump110
3.7.8Flexible Impeller Pump111
3.7.9Lobe Type Pump111
3.7.10Performance curve for Positive displacement pumps112
3.7.11Process Calculations for Reciprocating pumps117
3.7.12Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)119
3.8CENTRIFUGAL PUMP Seal Selection and Seal Chamber120
3.8.1API Seal Flushing Plans122
3.8.2Quenching137
3.9Control of Pumps144
3.9.1Centrifugal Pumps144
3.9.1.1Optional Features for Centrifugal Pumps141
3.9.2Control of Positive Displacement Pumps147
3.10Process Datasheet Sheet of Pumps149
3.10.1Pump Specification Sheet149
3.10.2Capacity150
3.10.3Minimum Required Flow (For Centrifugal Pumps Only)150
3.10.4Suction Pressure150
3.10.5Discharge Pressure151
3.10.6NPSH151
3.10.7Power Requirements153
3.10.8Pump Efficiency153
3.10.9Stream Properties153
3.11Examples for Pump Calculations156
3.12Centrifugal Pump Glossary175
3.13Glossary For Positive Displacement Pumps178
3.14References181